raymond loewy : S-1 locomotive, greyhound bus, studebaker, skylab ...............................................................................................................................

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raymond loewy


trains

pennsylvania railroad and the GG-1 locomotive
loewy was not one to understand engineering, but he did
understand how to make a machine look purposeful and powerful.
this is most evident in his locomotive designs for the pennsylvania
railroad, GG-1 in 1936.
these locomotives were in regular service for just
under 50 years, doing everything from first-class high-speed
(90-100mph in the 1930s) service to heavy-end freight business.








pennsylvania railroad and the S-1 locomotive
two years later, in 1938, the S-1 Steam locomotive followed.
he completely encased the engine and cab in a shell emphasizing
the headlong rushing lines of the powerful locomotive.
this design was considered a landmark design that was extremely
successful and influential in establishing higher design standards
for future locomotive designs.


see his drawings
http://www.rediscoveredpaper.com/rlg.html







PRR GG1 electric locomotive
photo © brian ward
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the S-1 locomotive,
courtesy laurence loewy, loewy design.
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bus

greyhound bus
loewy was first approached by the greyhound corporation
to redesign its logo. the company’s logo looked like a
'fat mongrel' he said. so, he created a slimmed-down version
that is still used today. later he developed the design for
greyhound’s scenicruiser motorcoach.
he and his team built a full size mock-up complete with seats
and a washroom.


greyhound lines bus design, 1940
courtesy laurence loewy, loewy design.
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car


studebaker
loewy had started with studebaker in 1936 as a consultant
for exteriors, he countered the u.s. car industry's preference
for chrome and tailfins: the cars he referred to as
'jukeboxes on wheels'.

in 1953 paul hoffman, then president of studebaker,
commissioned raymond loewy to design a car for the
'younger segment of automobile users' .
the starliner would later be known as the 'first american sports car.'
though loewy usually receives the credit, the actual design
of the car was largely done by robert e. bourke (1916-1996)
- starting in 1951 - who headed the raymond loewy associates
studebaker operation in south bend, indiana from 1949 to 1955.
the starliner's innovative appearance included:
- a longer, wider and lower appearance than what was
standard at the time;
- limited use of chrome;
- a sloping nose; and
- a concealed radiator.

he also designed studebaker's last car before its demise,
the avanti of 1961/ 1962, a sleek, futuristic sports car.
(avanti, italian for 'forward)
sherwood egbert, the new president of studebaker,
hired raymond loewy to help energize studebaker’s soon-to-be
released line of 1963 passenger cars to attract younger buyers.
loewy agreed to take on the job, despite the short 40-day
schedule allowed to produce a finished design and scale model.
the car received rave reviews, but because of a series of
production problems, the public had to wait to drive it.
studebaker corporation closed in 1963, and it wasn't until 1965,
when the avanti motor corporation was formed, that the avanti
went back into production.
his main direction included the following points:

- minimize chrome
- avoid decorative moldings
- accent the wedge-shaped silhouette
- stress long, down-slanted hood
- abbreviate the rear and tuck it under
- place instrument panel overhead, above windshield as in aircraft
- install aircraft-type knobs and levers on the console
- pinch the waistline, as Le Mans-type racing cars
- design hoods with an off-center panel
- accent spacecraft “reentry curve” wheel openings
- simple disc wheels

see also
http://www.studebakermuseum.org/studestory.htm
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trr027.html
http://www.sheridanc.on.ca/%7erandy/design.dir/car.dir/studebak.htm
http://www.lenfrank.com/studebak.htm
http://www.avantisource.com
http://patriot.net/~jonroq/rjavpicsx.html
http://www.forbes.com/2001/02/19/0219vow.html













the studebaker commander starliner
hard-top coupé
became known as the 'loewy coupé'.
courtesy laurence loewy, loewy design.





studebaker's avanti , 1962 / 1963
courtesy laurence loewy, loewy design.
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space

skylab
loewy himself considered his 'habitability studies' for
NASA's skylab, conducted from 1967 to 1973,
to be the most important work of his entire career.
assisted by a substantial design team, he devised means
of promoting both sociability and privacy among astronauts
on long missions, argued for the inclusion of a viewing porthole,
and suggested ways of handling nutrition, hygiene and
elimination during the extraordinary condition of weightlessness.
this allowed the astronauts to have a view of earth while in space
and grant physiological support. 
loewy also installed a triangular dining table,
so that no man from the three-person crew could be at its 'head.'
he felt that in a three-man crew it was vital that no man,
however unconsciously, should dominate the others.













habitability studies for the skylab, 1967 / 1973
courtesy laurence loewy, loewy design.
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see


every-day-objects

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biography
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